Tracheostomy insertion and management is increasingly common in critical care units and general wards. Therefore, it is important that nurses are equipped with the appropriate knowledge and skills to meet the individual needs of patients with a tracheostomy safely and competently. This article aims to enhance nurses’ understanding of the potential challenges that patients with a tracheostomy may experience, and to guide nurses in providing effective care and support to these patients. It outlines the care that should be provided for patients with a tracheostomy who are critically ill, including methods of humidification and endotracheal suctioning. This article also discusses the effects that a tracheostomy may have on a patient’s communication and psychological well-being, and explains the actions that nurses should take in an emergency and if complications occur.